Prof. Alberico Benedicenti – Prof. Stefano Benedicenti



(The state of the art)

Introduction to the 4th Edition

Many memories have come to my mind when I was writing the 4th edition of this book. I started to investigate the use of laser light at the beginning of the 1970’s. We published the first article on biomodulation in 1972. In 1977 I wrote the first edition of the “Atlas of Laser Therapy”. In 1982 an Italian company (Castellini) produced one of the first diode lasers for biomodulation in dentistry and physiotherapy according to our indications and suggested protocols. In this year, we published the second edition of this atlas. It was not easy to speak about biomodulation in the 70’s and 80’s. A lack of repeatable protocols, different wavelengths and parameters existed, which led to great confusion. Biomodulation in consequence was considered a kind of magic. This is why we tried, as other  eminent researchers like Hamblin and Karu to raise the profile of biomodulation through the publication of peer-reviewed International articles with repeatable protocols and parameters. Our approach went through the following steps:

  1. We created a “special hand-piece” called flat-top hand-piece to enable the irradiation of the pre-determined area with the same power density. In this way we have eliminated the Gaussian profile of conventional hand-pieces with more power density in the center of the spot and less in the peripheral part of it. Therefore, the cells directly in the center of the beam are irradiated at a very high fluence, while those on the periphery of the incident beam receive a very low dose. As a result, these cells at the beam center may be over stimulated and inhibited while those on the periphery receive insufficient cellular energy to produce any effect. Only through the replication of the same power density, could we compare clinical results and different power settings. The flat-top hand-piece has also the same irradiation area (spot size) from contact to 100 cm of distance from the target tissue, thus eliminating the problem of beam divergence. Whether in contact or at distance, we provide the same power density.
  2. We evaluated different wavelengths, power settings, frequencies, fluences on unicellular organisms (Paramecium primaurelia cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts).
  3. We evaluated the penetration depth, the therapeutic dosages on animals.
  4. We applied the protocols and parameters suggested by in vivo studies on unicellular organisms and in animals to human pathologies.

As such, we have investigated the interesting field of biomodulation in veterinary medicine and dentistry.

In this Atlas, you will find the University of Genoa’s method of photobiomodulation and many clinical cases, which were treated in the field of dental and medical pathology with precise application points and parameters.

I would like to thank my “big team” who have been a great support to me during all these years. They have helped me a lot and their names appear in the textbook, through their contribution to the many chapters.

I hope that this book can be of great help to many dentists, doctors in veterinary medicine and doctors in medicine who can explore or/and expand their practice in this amazing field of biomodulation.

Alberico Benedicenti


Steven Parker – Editor

Andrea Amaroli

Albina Benedicenti

Marco Bonelli

Francesco Condomitti

Mark Cronshaw

Vincenzo Cuteri

Nicola DeAngelis

Massimo Frosecchi

Jihad Habli

Reem Hanna

Fulvio Laus

Francesco Maria Manconi

Alex Mathews Maruppel

Marco Migliorati

Claudio Modena

Emanuele Paggi

Claudio Pasquale

Ercole Romagnoli

Wayne Selting

Antonio Signore

Luca Solimei

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